Learn more about the types of chili peppers. Browse our large selection of Chili Pepper Types categorized by heat level or listed alphabetically below. There are many, many varieties of chili peppers witth new hybrids being created all the time, and they often have different names depending on region. But, we're compiling information on chili peppers for you to learn more.
Over 1 Million Scoville Heat Units. Chinense. This is one of my favorite chili peppers. I love all 7-Pot peppers for their heat and fruitiness. In fact, it is one of the hottest chili peppers in the world. The 7-Pot Barrackapore comes from Trinidad and is a rare chili pepper. The pots are shaped similar to a habanero or a ghost pepper. The skin is typically pimpled and form a tail, per the photos. The pods start out green and ripen to a vibrant shade of red.
Over 1 Million Scovilles. The heat of the 7-Pot pepper is similar to the Bhut Jolokia but with a more fruity and nutty flavor, like other Caribbean peppers. It is becoming more popular and well-known among chile-heads, but the seeds are very rare and hard to find. The 7-Pot is from Trinidad, and there are a few different versions, including the Yellow 7-Pot, the 7-Pot Jonah, and the Chocolate, or 7-Pot Douglah. It is related to the Trinidad Scorpion Pepper and has rough, pimpled skin, but is more plump, with a ribbed texture and a more fruity flavor. Its name refers to the saying that it is hot enough to spice 7 pots of stew. In Trinidad, it is used in military grade tear gas and marine paint, which prevents barnacles.
175,000 Scovilles. Also sometimes known as Piri Piri or Pili Pili, the African Bird’s Eye is a small chile, growing to only about 1 inch, but they pack a lot of punch. They mature to red or purple, and have a tapered shape, with a blunt point. Historically found in the African wild, it has recently been grown commercially in some parts of Africa, often to be used as pepper extract or as organic pest control. The African Bird’s Eye is commonly used in soups, stews, hot sauces and chicken dishes, but the flavor is less interesting than other popular peppers. It is a close relative of the Tabasco pepper. It is the main ingredient in Peri Peri Sauce - get the recipe here.
30,000-50,000 Scovilles. Since “Amarillo” is the Spanish word for yellow, and “Ají” is the term for chile in South America, this pepper is also appropriately known as the “yellow chile.” The Ají Amarillo is grown in all areas of Peru. Used by the Incas, it is still the most common and popular chile in that country. It may be said that is it possibly the most important ingredient in Peruvian cooking. It grows to about 4-5 inches in length, and despite its name, it actually matures to a deep orange. Like other chiles from this area, the Amarillo has a fruity, berry-like flavor. It is medium in heat level, but it does not leave your mouth burning. It is also great as a condiment. The Ají Amarillo may be sold in Latin food stores and on the internet in its dried or paste form.
1,177 - 75,000 Scovilles. Also known generally as the Peruvian hot pepper, aji is the common name primarily in South America and areas of the Caribbean for chili peppers.
Capsicum Bacattum. The Aji Fantasy is an aji variety that was developed over a 5 year period in Finland. It is a sweet pepper, emphasis on sweet, with a mild heat level. The peppers are highly flavorful and ideal for many dishes. The plants are quite productive. Mine exploded this year in the garden and I've picked several dozen already. The pods are smallish, about the size of a habanero pepper, and ripen to an attractive bright yellow. They are shaped like squat little hats. An excellent pepper for cooking. A new favorite in the Chili Pepper Madness household.
30,000-50,000 Scovilles. The Limo chile (or Ají Limo) is another super-hot chili from Peru. (Ají is the term for chile pepper in South America.) It grows to about 2-3 inches, and may be red, yellow, orange, or even purple or white, providing great color for your dishes. They are commonly used in ceviche, and other Peruvian cooking, and they’re also great for salsas, chili and other fish dishes. The Limo has a citrus-spice flavor when cooked.
500 Scovilles. The Panca chili (or Ají Panca as it’s known in South America), is a deep red to burgundy pepper, measuring 3-5 inches. It is the second most common pepper in Peru, and is grown near the coast. Similar in shape to the Ají Amarillo, it is less spicy and has a rather sweet, berry-like, and slightly smoky flavor. The Ají Panca can be made into a paste or dried and minced to be used as a condiment. They can be found for sale on the internet in either form. Used in Peruvian cooking, the Panca is great for stews, sauces and fish dishes.
Capsicum baccatum. The Aji Pineapple is a gorgeous yellow baccatum pepper with elongated fruits that average from 2-3 inches long. They begin green and ripen to the vibrant yellow that you see in the photos. Similar to other Ajis, which are typically bright and fruity, the Aji Pineapple runs around 20,000 Scoville Heat Units, so it is moderately hot. I'm told this is a rare chili pepper, though that is a shame. It is a delicious pepper and works in many a dish. The plants are easy to grow and are very productive, at least from my personal experience.
About 10,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. The Aleppo pepper, also known as the Halaby pepper, is named after the city of Aleppo in Northern Syria. It is commonly grown in Syria and Turkey, and is usually dried and crushed. Aleppo pepper is used in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisine, although it has become very popular around the world as an alternative to crushed red pepper or paprika, due to its beautiful deep red color, rich fruity undertones and aromatic flavor. It is perfect for chili, pizza, sauces, or anywhere you may normally use paprika, if you like the extra heat. However, it is not as hot as conventional crushed red pepper, because it is de-seeded before it is crushed.
A mild, medium sized chili pepper that grows to 6-10 inches, often used when green, though it can be used when red. The basic variety ripens to a dark green/reddish color, but other strains ripen to full red. They are one of the most common chilis in the United States and are used in many foods and recipes. Red varieties can be strung together and dried to make ristras.
1,000 - 2,000 Scovilles. An Ancho pepper is the dried form of the poblano chili pepper. Ancho has a mild paprika flavor, with sweet to moderate heat. The Ancho chili pepper, together with the Mulato and Pasilla chili peppers, form the "holy trinity" of peppers widely used in cooking mole sauces. The Ancho is used to add flavor, heat, and color to the sauces.
95,000-110,000 Scovilles. As its name suggests, the Bahamian pepper originates from the Bahamas, where it is still one of the major agricultural crops. This small, round pepper grows to only about an inch in length, and may be found in an assortment of colors, including yellow, orange, green and red. Interestingly, the Bahamian pepper grows upright in clusters, unlike most peppers that hang from their stems. At roughly 100,000 Scovilles, they are hotter than the cayenne, but not quite as hot as most habaneros. They make a deliciously spicy addition to many foods and dishes.
0-500 Scovilles. Also known as the Yellow wax pepper, the Banana Pepper has a mild, sweet taste that is very popular on many types of foods. It is commonly eaten on pizza, in Greek salads, on sandwiches, or stuffed with meat and/or cheese. They also add a bit of sweetness to salsa and an interesting flavor, while other peppers add the heat. They may be pickled or used fresh. As the name suggests, it is typically a bright yellow or yellow-green, but they may mature to orange or red if left to ripen.
15,000-30,000 Scovilles. The Barker’s Hot chili pepper is an extra-hot chile, the hottest of the Anaheim/ New Mexico variety, and it has great flavor. They grow to 5-7 inches in length, and can be used just as you would use an Anaheim, with an extra punch. This variety originally comes from a selection of native New Mexican chiles, so it naturally grows well in very hot, dry climates. The peppers ripen from green to red, with the red fruits growing hotter than the green ones. The fruits have thin skins, making them great for roasting, frying whole, canning or stuffing. They also make deliciously hot salsa.
1,000,000 + Scoville Heat Units. Yep, these babies were officially the hottest peppers around, topping the Red Savina Habanero. It was awarded the distinction of World's Hottest of All Spices by the Guinness World Records in 2006, though was eventually toppled several times over.
50,000-100,000 Scovilles. The tiny Bird’s Eye Chili originated in Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, The Philippines, and surrounding countries, but they can now be found all over the world. They are presumably called Bird’s Eye Chili because of their small round shape and because they have been spread by birds, which are not affected by the heat of the peppers. The Chiltepin pepper in North America is also known by the same name, and for the same reasons, but it is a different pepper altogether.
5,000-30,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Baccatum. This chile is a member of the Capsicum Baccatum species, which includes the Ají pepper. It has an interesting shape, hence its name, and can be very spicy, with a fruity flavor. It is red when mature, and measures about 1 inch long and 2-3 inches wide. It can be used fresh in salsas or salads, and can be dried or pickled as well.
10,000-30,000 Scovilles. Grown for centuries in Bolivia (Central South America), the Bolivian Rainbow chile is a stunningly beautiful plant. The peppers start out a brilliant purple and turn yellow to orange to red, with all stages of the pepper present on the plant at once, making it a bright and colorful addition to your garden or your home. They can be grown indoors and will produce fruits continuously, year-round. When grown outside, they need a warm climate. The peppers are small, about 1 inch, and cone-shaped, growing upright on the plant. They somewhat resemble Christmas lights because of their shape and their bright and differing colors. In addition, the foliage and blossoms are purple, making the plant even more unique.
300,000 - 475,000 Scovilles. This extremely hot pepper, originally from the Yucatn peninsula in Mexico, is now also cultivated in the Carribean and around North America. This pepper typically grows to about 1 inch in diameter and 1 1/2 inches in length. It appears plentifully from bushes growing around 3 feet in height. The Carribean red habanero is about twice as hot as a regular habanero. It matures in as little as 90 days, and is suited to northern climates and even to growing in a larger-sized container. This pepper is considered especially nice for decorative purposes as well, though you will want to harvest it eventually for the fruity flavor as a fine addition to extra spicy salsas and marinades and for some very hot sauces.
This Italian sweet pepper is a corno di toro type (bull’s horn), because of its shape. The flavor is sweet and fruity. They are best picked when they have turned a deep red, as shown in the above photo. These plants were developed to bear fruit during cooler conditions, so they are excellent for higher zones with shorter growing seasons. Tapered fruits typically average 6 inches long by 2 ½ inches wide, weigh about 5 ounces (142 gm), and ripen from green to deep red. Maturity is early on an upright, medium-size plant. They are suitable for outdoor or indoor growing.
100,000-125,000 Scovilles. Similar in appearance to the original cayenne, this variety is twice as hot and appears slightly wider. Maturing to a deep red, the Carolina Cayenne has wrinkled, thin skin. It is native to Central and South America but was perfected and developed for growing by Clemson University in 1985. Most significantly, they found that it is resistant to root-knot nematode, a pest that can destroy certain plants and crops. Studies suggest it can be used as a rotation crop to reduce root-knot nematode, allowing another crop to be planted in that space following the Carolina Cayenne.
With a Guinness-submitted 1,569,383 SHU (scoville heat units) average and recently measured peak levels of over 2,200,000 SHU, SMOKIN’ ED’S CAROLINA REAPER® has officially completed its long journey to the top of “super-hot” chili charts. This is an extremely hot variety developed by a grower named Ed Currie. It is also called HP22B pepper. As of 2013 it is over 7 generations old. Ed created this chili pepper plant variety by crossing a Pakistani Naga with a Red Habanero type from St Vincents Island in the West Indies. The flavor is fruity and similar to a 7 Pot chili pepper. The Carolina Reaper can grow to a height over 4 feet tall.
1,000-3,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. The Cascabel Chile is grown in several areas of Mexico. It is small and round, 2-3 cm in diameter, and matures to a deep red. It is also called Chile Bola, meaning ball chile in Spanish. When dried, it turns to a dark brownish red, and the seeds become loose and rattle inside the chile. This is the reason for the name Cascabel, which means "little bell" or "sleigh bell" in Spanish. With a mild to moderate heat level, the Cascabel is perfect for adding a touch of heat to soups, salsas, stews and sauces.
Scoville Heat Units: 1,000 SHU (or less). Capsicum Annuum. The Cayenne Buist's Yellow is an excellent salsa pepper, and works well dehydrated and crushed into powder for various seasoning applications.
30,000 - 50,000 Scovilles. A thin chile pepper, green to red in color, about 2 to 3 inches long. The "cayenne pepper" spice you use is the dried, ground version of this pepper.
70,000-100,000 Scovilles. Similar to the Carolina Cayenne, the Charleston Hot is a variety of Cayenne created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in South Carolina. Although it was not bred for its heat, it is much hotter than a regular cayenne, which averages about 30,000 Scovilles. In fact, it’s almost as hot as a habanero but with a great cayenne flavor. The Charleston Hot starts out green and turns to yellow, then orange, then bright red. It can be harvested during its immature stages, but most people are familiar with its typical mature, red color. The peppers are long and skinny, growing to about 5 inches in length, and ¾ inch in width.
1,000-2,500 Scovilles. The Chilaca is a curved, long, thin pepper, that grows to about 6-9 inches, and 1 inch wide. It has a flattened shape, and its skin is wrinkled. It matues to a deep brown color, and has a rich flavor. The Chilaca is usually dried, and in this form is known as the Pasilla. The Chilaca is rarely used fresh, but the Pasilla is great for sauces or can be ground and made into a table sauce, or condiment.
Sources rate this chile in 2 categories- 15,000-30,000 and 50,000-65,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. Chiles de Árbol are small and thin Mexican peppers, growing to 2-3 inches long and less than a ½ inch wide. They mature to red, and are harvested and used at this stage. Chile de Árbol means “tree chili” in Spanish, a name which refers to the woody stem of the pepper. Other names for this chile include Bird’s beak chile, andRat’s tail chile. These peppers may be sold fresh, dried or powdered. The dried whole chilis are often used to make chile wreaths, or ristras, because when dried they keep their deep red color.
30,000-60,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. Also spelled Piquin, this chile is also called Bird Pepper, because it is consumed and spread by wild birds. It is a tiny fruit, (pequeno in Spanish means tiny) measuring only ½ to ¾ inches long, but don’t be fooled, this little chile packs quite a punch! As it matures it changes from green to bright red. It is sometimes confused with the Chiltepin, which is a similar but different pepper. Some describe the flavor as citrusy, smoky, and nutty. It is used in hot sauces, salsas, and soups, and it can be pickled. Just one or two of these little chiles punctured and put in a pot of food will add a kick!
50,000 to 100,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. The Chiltepin, or Chiltepine, is a tiny, round or oval shaped, red to orange-red chile, measuring about .8cm in diameter. It has grown in the wild throughout much of Northern Mexico and Southern Texas for generations, and there is much folklore and history involving the plant in the US/Mexico Borderland areas. Efforts to grow the wild plants on farms have led to the development of the Chile Piquin which is grown commercially in Mexico and Texas.
4,000-6,000 Scovilles. The Chimayo is another New Mexico chile, but it is a unique one. It is not commercially mass produced, but is more commonly grown in individual homes and gardens, making them unpredictable and un-conforming, in a good way. The length can vary from 4-7 inches, even from the same plant, and the shape could be straight and skinny or bent and curly. The Chimayo has been grown throughout northern New Mexico for so many generations that it is commonly called “native chile” and seeds are often passed down through families. They are exchanged almost ceremoniously, often as a gift, or while visiting a relative. Outside of New Mexico, most people who know of the Chimayo chile are only familiar with its powdered form, called Molido.
2,500 - 8,000 Scovilles. Chipotle Peppers are smoked, dried jalapenos. As jalapeno pepper age, then turn red on the vine and begin to dry. These red jalapeno peppers are plucked and smoked for days until dried, turning them into chipotle peppers. It takes about 10 pounds of jalapeno peppers to make 1 pound of chipotle peppers.
Tested between 923,000 and 1.85 million Scovilles, with an average of 1,169,058 SHU. One of the hottest chili peppers in the world. It is suspected that it could reach 2 million in the future. From Trinidad, an island just northeast of Venezuela, the 7-Pot is a Caribbean chile. It’s similar in shape to the Habanero and has similar “pimpling” to other super hot peppers, like the Naga Morich. Its flavor is fruity, sweet and nutty, if you can get past the intense and sweat-inducing heat. The Chocolate 7-Pot, also called the 7-Pot Douglah, is named after its ability to “spice 7 pots of stew.” The name Douglah comes from the Trinidad meaning of the word: people of “mixed race” are called Douglah. The 7-Pot is grown in the “back country” of Trinidad. They are not commercially grown yet. Currently they are difficult to find but have nonetheless become popular and much sought after.
300,000-425,000 Scovilles. The Chocolate Habanero, also known as “Congo Black” or “Black Habanero,” is one of the hottest peppers originating from the Caribbean. It ripens to a beautiful chocolate brown and delivers searing heat. They take longer to grow and mature than other habanero varieties, but they are well worth the wait. Fruits grow to about 3 inches long by 2 inches wide. The Chocolate Habanero has a distinctively rich and unique flavor. Cooks love using it to spice up a meal, with a little going a long way. It is great for use in salsas, sauces, and especially Jamaican Jerk Sauce. They can be dried easily and reconstituted with water for use in sauces or cooking.
Scoville Heat Units: 1,000+ SHU. Capsicum Annuum. A mild and sweet multi-purpose chili pepper ideal for many types of cooking. Use them in place of bell peppers in the Cajun Holy Trinity (bell peppers, onion, celery), for stuffed pepper recipes, roasting and grilling, or simply eating raw.
700-2,000 Scovilles. Originally from South America, the Coronado Pepper grows to 4” long and 2” wide with thin, waxy skin. It tastes like a mix of pear and berries, and turns a bright red when ripe. With its mild flavor, it can be eaten fresh, added to dishes for extra flavor, or dried and ground into powder.
0-1,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. The Cubanelle is considered a sweet pepper, although its heat can range from mild to moderate. Cubanelles are usually picked before they ripen, while they are a yellowish-green color, but when ripe, they turn bright red. They are usually about 4-6 inches long, 2 inches wide, and banana-shaped, tapering near the bottom. The skin should be glossy, and the pepper should be smooth and firm. Cubanelles are also called the Italian Frying Pepper, because they are great in a frying pan with a little olive oil.
100,000 – 300,000 Scovilles. The Datil packs the intense heat of a Habanero or a Scotch Bonnet, but its flavor is sweeter, and more fruity. It grows to about 3 inches long, and turns yellow-orange when mature. The majority of Datils come from St. Augustine, FL, where they are grown commercially, but they can be grown almost anywhere indoors with seeds from vendors. Many companies make all types of hot sauces, which can be found at some specialty stores or online.Two different stories exist about the arrival of the Datil in St. Augustine. Some say that people brought the pepper from Minorca, a Mediterranean island off the coast of Spain, in the 18th century. Others say a jelly maker from Chile brought it to Florida around 1880. Either way, the Datil is so popular in St. Augustine and its local cuisine, that they hold an annual Datil Pepper Festival each October.
125,000-325,000 Scovilles. The Devil’s Tongue is similar in color and shape to the Fatalii, but with smoother skin and smaller size. It matures to a bright yellow or yellow-orange and has a sweet, fruity flavor, if you can get past the intense heat. It appears to be in the habanero family, but it was “discovered” in Pennsylvania growing amongst other habaneros, so its exact origins are unknown. The heat level rivals that of the habanero and is still much hotter than most peppers.
60,000-100,000 Scovilles. The Diablo Grande comes from the same group that includes jalapenos, poblanos, cayenne, and Serrano peppers. The fruits of this chile start out yellow-green and ripen to red, with a narrow crescent-shape and somewhat thick flesh. They may be harvested while green or red. These peppers are delicious when used fresh, pickled, or cooked in dishes.
Capsicum Annuum. The Dolmalik is an heirloom Ancho type pepper from Turkey. It has a rich smoky sweet flavor. Peppers ripen from light green to a reddish brown. They are used as a powder in Turkey to season meats but also make an ideal stuffing or roasting pepper. The Dolmalik peppers are about 2 inches in diameter and 4 inches long. Flesh is medium thickness. The Dolmalik chile plants grow over 3 feet tall.
1 million- 1.5 million Scovilles. (Capsicum Chinense) Development of the Dorset Naga began near Dorset, England, around 2001 when Joy and Michael Michaud of “Peppers by Post” bought a Naga Morich plant from an Oriental foods store in southern England. The Naga Morich chile is from Bangladesh and is highly regarded in that community. Over several years they selected fruit with the specific characteristics they were looking for, and extracted seeds. They planted those seeds and continued until they were satisfied with the result. The heat level has been tested repeatedly since 2005 and has ranged from 661,451 SHU for green fruit up to 1,032,310 SHU for ripe fruit in 2009. Another test has measured the heat level as high as 1,598,227 SHU, making it one of the hottest peppers in the world.
Capsicum Annuum. This is a sweet pepper that resembles a long and twisted Cayenne chili pepper. It is originally from the Southwest corner of France called Landes. The name translates into "English sweet pepper from Landes". The fruit of the Doux des Landes pepper can grow over a foot long. The flavor profile is sweet and fruity. The peppers ripenn from green to red and are used fresh or cooked. In particular, they are known for a Basque recipe called Pipperade. Consider these peppers for sweeter sauces.
55,000-65,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. These small, round chili peppers from Pakistan grow to about ½ inch to 1 inch in diameter, and are dark red in color. They are very popular in Pakistani and Indian cooking, with a flavor similar to Scotch Bonnet Chili Peppers, but with less heat. These little chiles pack a punch though! Just a couple crushed Dundicuts added to a pot will add heat and flavor.
Elephant's Ear - (Capsicum annuum). Also known as Slonovo Uvo. The Elephant's Ears is a rare large sweet Paprika type from Croatia. The name is derived from the shape, as the pepper flattens when fully grown and resembles the shape of an elephant's ear. In Croatia, this pepper is typically roasted, stuffed, and used for sauces and a variety of condiments. In Croatia and Serbia, it is very popular for Ajvar, a famous chili pepper preserve. The plant produces peppers over 6 inches in length and over 4 inches wide. The fruits ripen from green to red. The Elephant Ears chile plants can grow up to 3 feet tall.
1,500-2,000 Scovilles. The Espanola was developed in New Mexico in the 1980s by crossing a Sandia pepper with another New Mexico chile. They grow to 5-7” and mature from green to a deep red. The young green fruits can be used to make green chile or chiles rellenos, while the red peppers are sometimes dried to make ristras or ground into a smoky chili powder. The Espanola is also popular in many dishes to add just a little kick.
125,000-325,000 Scovilles. The Fatalii comes from central and southern Africa, and is one of the hottest peppers in the world. With the heat level of a habanero, it has a more fruity, citrus flavor, and packs an instant, intense burn, unlike the habanero, whose heat “sneaks up on you.” The peppers grow to about 3 inches long, and mature to yellow. They have somewhat thin walls, and may be dried if cut lengthwise. They could be made into a powder for an intense spice, or frozen for later use.
2,500-10,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. The Fresno pepper looks and tastes almost like a jalapeno, but they can be much hotter. Fresno peppers change from green to red as they grow, and increase in hotness, but they are often harvested and sold as green. The green peppers are mild to medium hot, while the mature red version is much hotter, surpassing the jalapeno. They grow to about 2-3 inches in length and have a diameter of about one inch. Fresno chiles are commonly grown in the U.S. and are popular for making ceviche and salsa. The green peppers can be used in many types of dishes to add great flavor, but the hotter red version may be better for dips or salsas. Fresno peppers do not dry well, so they are not ground down to powder, like many other types of chiles.
The Gatherer's Gold chili pepper is horn-shaped pepper that ripens to a beautiful orange-gold color. It is a chick walled pepper with a sweet flavor and very few seeds. It is an Italian sweet pepper and ideal for frying, though it is also excellent roasted or raw.
Family: Solanaceae. Genus: Capsicum. Species: Annuum. Cultivar: Giant Szegedi. The Giant Szegedi sweet pepper is originally from Hungary. It is a heart-shaped pepper that starts out whitish-yellow then ripens through orange to red when fully ripe, where it is at its sweetest. The fruit is about 4-1/2 inches long. It is a fleshy pepper with thick walls. The plants are typically very productive and hardy.
1,086,844 Scovilles. The Gibralta Naga, or Spanish Naga, is of course grown in Spain, but was developed in the UK from Indian chili peppers. It beat out the Bhut Jolokia for hottest pepper, but was soon overtaken. As they are grown, they are stressed by creating a hot environment, which helps to make the chiles extremely hot. They grow to about 3 inches and are round on top with a tapered end. They start out green and mature to red with wrinkled, knobby skin.
2,500-5,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. The Guajillo is one of the most common and popular chiles grown and used in Mexico. It is mild to moderately hot, and has dark, reddish brown, leathery skin. The peppers range from 3-5 inches in length and are 1 inch wide. They are said to have either a green-tea flavor or fruity flavor, with hints of berries. The Guajillo is usually sold in its whole, dried form, which can be either toasted and ground into powder, or re-hydrated and made into a sauce or paste. It may also be sold in its powder form, already ground down.
35,000-40,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. The Guntur Sannam chili is grown in and around Guntur and Warangal in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It is an extremely important cash crop in that area, and the livelihoods of thousands depend on a successful harvest. Its popularity spreads throughout the world. It is mostly used as a condiment, a culinary supplement, or a vegetable.
100,000 - 350,000 Scovilles originally. 80,000 - 600,000 Scovilles is the new range. This pepper is named after the Cuban city of La Habana, known here as Havana, because it used to feature in heavy trading there. It is related to the Scotch bonnet pepper; they have somewhat different pod types but are varieties of the same species and have similar heat levels. The habanero pepper grows mainly on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, where it is now thought to have originated, though it also grows in other hot climates including in Belize, in Costa Rica, in parts of the United States, and in Panama where it is known as the aji chombo. Once the Spanish had discovered it, they spread it far and wide around the world, so much so that taxonomists in the 18th century thought it originated in China and therefore named it “Capsicum chinense” or the “Chinese pepper.” If anything, this pepper’s popularity is even more on the rise today.
1,000 - 2,500 Scovilles. Hatch chili peppers are grown and harvested in Hatch Valley, New Mexico. Located in the heart of the Rio Grande agricultural territory, Hatch, New Mexico, is often referred to as the Chili Capital of the World. Hatch chili peppers refer to the types of chilies brought to fame, regardless of where they were actually grown, though for truly authentic "Hatch Peppers", they should be grown in the Hatch region of New Mexico.
Hatch chiles are a cultivar of the common New Mexico green chili developed at the Chile Institute at New Mexico State University in the 1920s. The Hatch Chile Festival occurs annually each Labor Day weekend and draws up to 30,000 people from around the world to the tiny town of less than 2,000 residents.
There are many varieties of Hatch Peppers. Here is a list of the most popular: NuMex Big Jim | NuMex Sandia | NuMex Joe E. Parker | New Mexico 6-4 | NuMex Heritage 6-4 | NuMex Heritage Big Jim | Barker Extra Hot | NuMex R Naky.
6,000-17,000 Scovilles. The Hidalgo is an heirloom pepper, similar in shape and hotness to the Serrano, originally from Mexico and Central America. The plants of this chili pepper produce large quantities and seem very sturdy. The chilis grow to about 2” long, and have thick, shiny red skin. The Hidalgo pepper is great for pickling. It can be used to make relish or added to many dishes for quite a kick. They taste great put in salsa or sauces as well.
1,000 SHU, Approximately. Since the mid 1980's, China has been sending recoverable satellites into space on a 5 day orbit around Earth. Each trip, approximately 5000 seeds are sent along and are exposed to the zero gravity and cosmic radiation, then returned. Back on Earth, these seeds are then cultivated. Around 50 of each batch show positive signs of mutation. These are selected for a 3-5 year program of cultivation and field testing and selection until those with the best properties are ready for sale. The seeds tend to have a high disease resistance, be more nutritious and give a much higher yield.
Scoville Heat Units: 5,000-15,000 SHU. Capsicum Annuum. The Hungarian Wax Pepper, as its name suggests, originated in Hungary. Also known as the Hot Wax Pepper, it is easily confused with the similar-looking banana pepper, but it is much hotter. The Hungarian Wax is harvested before complete maturity, while it is still yellow, and about 8 inches long and 2 inches thick. If left to mature fully, these peppers could grow larger and would turn red, and their heat level would increase considerably.
1,176,182 Scovilles. Created in England by Nick Woods of “Fire Foods,” the Infinity Chili pepper held the World Record for the world’s hottest chili pepper for two weeks in 2011, before it was ousted by the Naga Viper chili. With a Scoville rating of well over 1 million, it beat out the Bhut Jolokia, the previous record holder. Its wrinkled skin is an indicator of its searing heat. At these levels, even touching the chili pepper could sting a little and touching your eyes afterwards is not recommended! People who have tried eating bites of a whole, fresh Infinity chili describe the pain as unbearable and agonizing. The good news is, one of these peppers could probably spice a meal for an army. Perhaps they should call it the 15-pot.
2,500 - 8,000 Scovilles. A jalapeno pepper is a fuit of the Capsicum pod type. It is a medium sized pepper when compared to other chili pepper, measuring an average of 2-3.5 inches in length but growing up to 6 inches long or longer. While originating in Mexico, it is now grown worldwide for it's popular flavor and mild heat level, which averages around 5,000 Scoville Heat Units. That is hot, but not too hot. You'll find them served when green, but if you leave the jalapeno pepper on the plant long enough, it will turn red. The red variety are just as delicious as the green jalapeno pepper, though a touch sweeter. A mature jalapeno pepper plant measures 2-3 feet in height and will typically produce around 30-40 jalapeno pepper pods. If you grow them in your own garden, pick them regularly, as the plant will continue to produce.
Scoville Heat Units: 5,000 SHU. Capsicum Annuum. The Jaloro is a hybrid version of the jalapeno, created by the Texas Agriculture Extension Service in 1992.
100,000-200,000 Scovilles. As the name suggests, these peppers are from Jamaica, but have become popular around the world. There are a few varieties of Jamaican hot peppers. The Jamaican Hot Chocolate Pepper matures to a rich brown color with ribbed and wrinkled skin. They grow to about 2 inches and have a very spicy Caribbean flavor. They are great for use in hot sauces and marinades. The Jamaican Hot Red or Yellow Pepper is squash-shaped with thinner skin and matures to a bright yellow or red. The red is slightly spicier than the other two varieties. These can be pickled or even eaten fresh, if you can get past the intense heat.
20,000-30,000 Scovilles. The Jwala is the most popular chile in India, adding great flavor and spice to many Indian dishes. The word “Jwala” means “Volcano” in Hindi, and they are commonly found in the Gujarat region of India. The peppers start out light green and ripen to red, and can be used fresh or dried. They grow to about 4 inches in length with wrinkled skin, and resemble a slightly curved finger. The plants are very productive, and can be grown easily in pots or in a garden.
15,000-30,000 Scovilles. This bright yellow, citrus-flavored chile is also known as Kellu Uchu in Peru, where it originated. The pods grow to 2-3 inches long and ½ inch wide with wrinkled skin. Its unique lemon taste has caught the attention of those who love the citrus flavor of habanero but just can’t quite handle the intense heat. The Lemon Drop is a fantastic substitute. Although the heat is intense, it does not linger. Instead, it leaves behind the nice, lemony flavor.
The Liebesapfel is a sweet, thick fleshed chili pepper that typically grows very early and is a very productive pepper. The name literally translates from German to “Love Apple”, apparent by the shape of the pepper. It looks like a cross between an apple and a tiny pumpkin. It is a type of pimento and was developed by a small seed company in Germany. The fruits are gorgeous to behold, ribbed, round and flattened like little pumpkins. They ripen from green to brown and to red. Try them for stuffing.
225,000 Scovilles average (ranging from 125,000 to 325,000 SHU). Rumored to be named after a famous Brazilian prostitute, the Madame Jeanette comes in various forms, from an elongated shape of a bell pepper about 3-4 inches long, or somewhat curved in similar size, or even similar in shape to a Scotch Bonnet. It brings the intense heat of a habanero and is known for its sweet tropical flavor. The peppers mature to either yellow or red, depending on the variety. The Madame Jeanette is from Suriname in South America, and are quite prominent in Surinamise dishes, particularly prized for their flavor and aroma when cooking. It is also common in Indian sambal.
60,000-100,000 Scovilles. The Malagueta chili pepper is similar in appearance to the Bird’s Eye chili or the Thai chili because of its bright red color and short, tapered body. It starts out green and matures to red, and grows to only about 2 inches. The Malagueta is one of the most popular chilis in Brazil, and is also used widely in Portugal and Mozambique. Its name comes from an unrelated spice in West Africa called the melegueta, which causes some confusion.
2,500-5,000 Scovilles. The name Mirasol means "looking at the sun" in Spanish, which describes the way these peppers grow on the plant. They are known asGuajillo in their dried form, which are one of the main chiles used in traditional mole sauces. The Mirasol varies in size and appearance, but it is conical in shape, and commonly 4-5 inches long, and about 2 inches wide. It is red to dark red, or copper in color. The flavor of the Mirasol is fruity and berry-like, and is described as full-bodied, distinct, and "delicate." It is perfect for chicken, fish, potato, or pork dishes and adds a delicious spiciness to salsas, stews, chilis and mole sauces. They are very common in Peruvian cooking.
2,500 - 8,000 Scovilles (or up to 10,000). Morita chilies are smoked, red-ripe jalapeno peppers, much like the chipotle pepper. The main difference is that Moritas are smoked for less time, which leaves them softer and retains their slightly fruity flavor. They are very richly flavored.
The Moshi Chili Pepper originates from Tanzania, Africa. It is named for the village of Moshi, located at the base of Mount Kiliminjaro. It is a very rare but productive hot pepper variety, yielding many peppers. The chili plants grow on average between 3-4 feet in height. The peppers ripen from green to red and typically reach two inches in length with a pointed end. This variety made its way to the United States via an exotic seed collector.
2,500-3,000 Scovilles. Capsicum Annuum. The Mulato is a mild to medium driedPoblano, similar to the Ancho, but with a slightly different flavor. Both are green while growing, but while the Ancho is a Poblano that ripens to a deep red, the Mulato is a Poblano that ripens to brown, then it is dried. It grows to about 4 inches long and 2 inches wide, tapering toward the bottom. The Mulato is part of the “holy trinity” of chiles used in Mexican mole sauces, along with the Ancho and Pasilla chiles. It has flavors of chocolate or licorice, with a hint of cherry and tobacco. Because it is dried, it is commonly ground into chili powder. Whole or ground, it is perfect for many sauces in addition to mole.
1,382,118 Scovilles. The Naga Viper (capsicum chinense) has been rated at 1,382,118 Scoville Heat Units (SHU), according to tests conducted by the Warwick HRI Mineral Analysis Laboratory, UK, in November 2010. The Naga Viper chili pepper is a hybrid of three different chili peppers - the Bhut Jolokia, the Naga Morich, and the Trinidad Scorpion. It was created by Gerald Fowler, who runs the Chili Pepper Company in Cumbria, England. This pepper is hotter than the Naga Jolokia (or Bhut Jolokia) by a scorching 300,000 Scovilles, and is claimed to be able to peel paint. In comparison, pure capsaicin is rated at between 15,000,000 - 16,000,000 Scoville units, and police grade pepper spray is rated at about 5,000,000 Scovilles.
2,500-3,000 Scovilles. This giant chili pepper was introduced by New Mexico State University in the 1970s as a cross between a few different types of local chiles and a Peruvian chile. They measure 10-12” and mature to red, but are usually harvested and used when green. The peppers have actually been listed in the Guinness Book of World Records for being the largest chile ever grown. The New Mex Big Jim has a mildly spicy flavor and is great for chiles rellenos because of its size. They could also be used in salsa or on salads, or the red ones could be dried to make beautiful ristras. They’re also great for roasting, pickling or just about anything else you can think of.
60,000-70,000 Scovilles. Another of the many New Mexico varieties, the New Mex XX Hot is just that- very hot. The chiles are slim with thin walls and smooth skin, and grow to 3-5 inches. When grown on a farm they can be machine harvested.
3,000-5,000 Scovilles. The New Mexico 6-4 Heritage chile pepper was developed around 1998 from a seed bank of the original New Mexico 6-4. The original NM 6-4, which was released in 1957, had “run out,” meaning that after so many years of commercial growing, it had lost much of its flavor and aroma, and had increased its variability in heat levels, maturity date, and yield. In 1998 Dr. Paul Bosland, along with NMSU’s Chile Pepper Institute and Biad Chili, used seeds from the original NM 6-4 that had been frozen in a storage lab to create the new line of chile. Dr. Bosland grew the peppers for three years, perfecting the line by selecting for more flavor and improved yield. The result was a chile with five times more flavor and aroma than the original, and the flavor is even stronger and richer when roasted. They grow to 5-8 inches in length.
1,191,595 Scovilles. A New Mexico-based team has developed a super-hot chile known as the "New Mexico Scorpion" The New Mexico Scorpion has been rated at 1,191,595 Scoville Heat Units by an independent laboratory. The team of Dave DeWitt, National Fiery Foods Show producer; Marlin Bensinger, chemical engineer; and Jim Duffy, grower have found one of the world’s hottest chile peppers in the New Mexico Scorpion. Recent testing, conducted by third-party Analytical Foods Laboratory in Texas, rated the New Mexico Scorpion at 1,191,595 Scoville Heat Units (SHU). Dave and his team are confident their chile could rate even hotter in future tests.
1,500-3,000 Scovilles. This New Mexico variety was named after Mr. Joe E. Parker, a graduate of NMSU’s College of Agriculture and Home Economics, who helped to evaluate this selection of chile. It originally came from one plant selected from a field of open-pollinated “New Mexico 6-4” peppers. The variety was released for garden production in 1990 and is recommended for growth in southern New Mexico. The chiles grow to about 8 inches in length and 1.8 inches in width, and can be used either in their green or red stage.
250-750 Scovilles. The NuMex R Naky chile is an Anaheim-type hybrid created by Dr. Nakayama of New Mexico State University in 1985. It comes from the mix of the Rio Grande 21 pepper, the New Mexico 6-4, and a Bulgarian paprika. The fruit grows to 5-6 inches and has a mild flavor. In comparison, the New Mex R Naky prodices significantly more volume per acre than the New Mexico 6-4, and has a brighter red color. They grow best in hot, dry climates.
250-750 Scovilles. The NuMex R Naky chile is an Anaheim-type hybrid created by Dr. Nakayama of New Mexico State University in 1985. It comes from the mix of the Rio Grande 21 pepper, the New Mexico 6-4, and a Bulgarian paprika. The fruit grows to 5-6 inches and has a mild flavor. In comparison, the New Mex R Naky prodices significantly more volume per acre than the New Mexico 6-4, and has a brighter red color. They grow best in hot, dry climates. They are great for stuffing or roasting, and they are often used as a paprika cultivar in New Mexico.
The Orange Thai chili pepper is a thin chili pepper that is very similar to the typical red Thai-style chili pepper, though unique for its orange ripening pods. The peppers grow a few inches long overall and have very bright, colorful orange skin. I place them in the medium-hot category along with other Thai-style peppers, though the fruity flavor may make them seem slightly milder. The plants are very productive and can yield up to 200 chili peppers.
250 - 1000 Scovilles. A large, cone-shaped chili pepper. It is typically dried and ground to make the more familiar powdered spice. It is originally from Hungary. The paprika is a fairly large red pepper and quite long, growing up to 8 inches, and lends a unique spiciness to paprika powder. Most cooks consider paprika when preparing dishes like deviled eggs or potato salad, using it more for color than flavor. This is such a shame, as they do offer a unique flavor.
Paprika Kalocsa - (Capsicum annuum). The Paprika Kalocsa is very close in appearance to the Szegedi 179 Paprika variety, but it is thicker, nearly 3/4 of an inch and can grow to over 6 inches in length. The heat level is considered medium compared to other chili peppers. They ripen from green to dark red and have a rich paprika flavor with fruity tones. The Paprika Kalocsa can be dried for seasoning, stuffed, roasted or used to make sauces. The Paprika Kalocsa chili plants can grow up to 3 feet tall.
250 - 3,999 Scovilles. Pasilla or “little raisin” properly refers to the dried chilaca pepper. The chilaca, when fresh, is also known as pasilla bajio, or as the chile negro or “Mexican negro” because, while it starts off dark green, it ends up dark brown. It typically grows from 8 to 10 inches long. The pasilla pepper should not be confused with the ancho. The ancho is the dried version of the poblano pepper that growers and grocers frequently mislabel as the pasilla in the United States. The darker anchos ARE also sometimes known as chile negro - thus generating much confusion - but they are not the same as the pasilla peppers.
100-500 Scovilles. Also known as Tuscan Peppers, sweet Italian peppers, or golden Greek peppers. They are sweet and mild in flavor, not very hot although they can vary and be found up to a medium heat level. The peppers are thin, 2 to 3 inches in length, have wrinkled skin and are usually sold pickled. The skin is a light yellow-green but will turn red as they mature, so you'll find both green and red pepperoncini's in stores, although green is most common. Pickled are also most common, although you can use fresh pepperoncini peppers in recipes, such as pizza sauce.
5,000-30,000 Scovilles. This very interesting little chili makes a great conversation piece in the garden or in the kitchen due to its distinctively phallic shape, hence its name. It grows to about 3-4 inches long and 1-1.5 inches wide, and matures to a bright red. Originally from Texas and Louisiana, they are grown commercially and seeds can be obtained through private companies. They are great for salsas!
1,177 Scovilles. Capsicum Baccatum. The Peppadew is grown in the Limpopo province of South Africa, and is actually the brand name of sweet piquanté peppers. As the story goes, a farmer discovered the tiny pepper in South Africa in the 1990s and put it on the market. He described it as “peppery” but “sweet as the dew,” hence the name. It became very popular in South Africa in the 2000s, especially as a pizza topping. The Peppadew is a sweet pepper, with just a bit of heat. It resembles a cherry tomato, but it has no relation. It is sold commercially, either hot or mild, and may be stuffed with soft cheeses, such as cream cheese. It is also tasty on salads, omelettes, and sandwiches.
Capsicum Annuum. The Piment de Bresse is a rare chili pepper grown on the plains of Lyon, France, and is named after the city of 'la Bresse' in burgundy, where you will find it used in many recipes originating in that region. It is used traditionally in powder form and incorporated into a cheese called "fromage fort". It is an ancient heirloom that has been used for hundreds of years. The peppers ripen from green to a bright red as shown. the taste is sugary and the heat level falls somewhere between a jalapeno pepper and cayenne pepper. The fruits are elongated and typically reach up to 5 inches in length, and about 1 inch wide.
100 - 500 Scovilles. The pimento (often spelled pimiento) is also called the cherry pepper. It measures 3-4 inches long and 2-3 inches side. Pimiento translates to "pepper" from Spanish. See the photo below. It is bright red and shaped like a heart. You might be most familiar with the pimento as the famous pepper used to stuff olives.
Capsicum Annuum. Pimiento de Padron chili peppers (aka pimento de padron or just "padron" peppers) originate from the province, Galicia, in the northwestern Spanish municipality, Padrón. They are small to medium-sized peppers averaging about 3 inches in length. The color ranges, starting out bright green and maturing to a vibrant red. The interesting thing about padron peppers is that most of them are very mild peppers with no heat, but a small percentage of them will give you a shock of heat.
The Piquillo de Lodosa is a chili pepper from Navarre, Spain, specifically from Lodosa. It is an official Basque chili pepper. The flavor profile is sweet with a very mild heat. The locals roast them then store them in oil, or they pickle them. This pepper is ideal for many applications, from stuffing to roasting, frying, working into sauces, soups and more. The peppers ripen from green to red and are about 2 inches in diameter. They narrow to a point at end of pendant pods. The Piquillo de Lodosa chili plants grow up to 3 feet tall.
1,000 - 2,000 Scovilles. The poblano is an extremely popular chili pepper. 4 inches long, very dark green in color, ripening to dark red or brown. Poblano peppers are mild peppers, quite large and are somewhat heart-shaped. Their skins/walls are very thick, making them perfect for stuffing as they'll hold up in the oven quite nicely. They are typically roasted and peeled when cooking with them, or dried. When dried, they are called ancho chilis. Poblanos originated in Puebla, Mexico, and one of the most popular peppers grown there. The poblano plant is multi-stemmed and can reach up to 25 inches high. The pods are 3-6 inches long and 2-3 inches wide. Immature poblano peppers are deep purple-green in color, and eventually turn dark red and black as they age. They are closely related to the mulato chili.
2,500 - 8,000 Scovilles. The Purple Jalapeno is a smaller ornamental version of the typical jalapeno pepper. The purple jalapeno pepper plants are highly productive, with the peppers starting off green, then maturing to a dark purple color, which eventually turn deep red. It is common for the plants to display all three colors simultaneously, making the plant a gorgeous addition to your garden. The plant is not only ornamental, however. The purple jalapeno peppers are perfectly edible and delicious, and also as hot as a typical jalapeno pepper.
The Purple Marconi is a delicious and sweet Italian chili pepper. They grow to about 6 inches in length and taper to a blunt tip. It is a thin-walled pepper with a crunchy texture that comes in three different, vibrant colors - Bright red (as shown in the photo), which is the sweetest; Purple, which has a deeper pepper flavor; and the Golden, which offers a gentle sweetness. The plants are highly productive and produce fruits that are great for frying, roasting, stuffing, or eating raw. The pepper starts out purple and changes to fully red when ripe and at its sweetest. It turns several sunset colors all at the same time along the way. When fully red the flavor is out of this world with a powerful sweetness.
5,000-8,000 Scovilles. The Puya chile is similar to the Guajillo, but smaller and hotter. It is often used more for its fruity flavor, rather than its flesh, which means it is great pureed, mashed or diced, and then made into a sauce. It may be soaked in water to pull out the flavor, and then the water can be used in your dish. The Puya may be used as a pizza topping, or with meat dishes, such as pork, veal, fish and chicken.
75,000 Scovilles. The Red Amazon is actually dried Tabasco chile, but since it is so commonly known in this form, we included it separately here. The Tabasco chile is one of the most common chiles in America, and it is often used in hot sauce, but the Red Amazon, in dried form, is a great addition to soups and sauces. Ground into a powder, it can be used as a spice in place of cayenne pepper to add kick to just about any dish.
200,000 - 580,000 Scovilles. This pepper is a cultivar of the habanero. It once held the Guinness Record for the hottest chili pepper, but the Bhut Jolokia now claims that prize. The red savina is a bright red and robust fruit, with up to 50 fruits appearing per pepper plant. It was the first habanero pepper to receive USDA plant-protection certification, and it has even been one of the major ingredients involved in creating police-grade pepper sprays - though for culinary use it often turns up in somewhat-safer chili powder and hot sauces!
1,500-2,500 Scovilles. There is some confusion about the rocotillo chili pepper, since some appear to be from Capsicum baccatum and some from Capsicum Chinense. They look and taste similar but have different origins. In addition, the name “rocotillo” is used locally to describe different peppers in different parts of the world. The chili discussed on this page is one of the more common types referred to as “rocotillo.” Originally from Peru, the Rocotillo is grown in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the southern United States. This round, pudgy little chili pepper starts out green or yellow and ends up a variety of colors, including red, orange or brown. They can be harvested and used in any of these stages. They can also be dried easily.
30,000 - 100,000 Scovilles. This pepper grows in the Andes from Chile to Columbia, as well as in the highlands of Central America and Mexico. It goes by many names including the locoto pepper widespread through South America, or as the rocote, or as the caballo or "horse" in Guatemala and some parts of Mexico. It is also known in Peru and in Mexico as the manzano/manzana or "apple pepper" in one variety resembling small apples and often used when red, or as perón or "pear pepper," once again in Mexico and in allusion to its especially fruity or even sometimes green appearance. They are called canario or "canary" pepper when referring to the yellow variety, particularly in Oaxaca. They are further known as cera and malinalco, or ciruelo, as well as cirhuleo in Querétaro, a state in central Mexico.
5,000-7,000 Scovilles. Another chili from New Mexico, the Sandia grows to 6-7” and is similar to the Anaheim pepper. They start green and ripen to red, but are often used while green. Like so many other peppers from this region, the red ones can be dried to make decorative ristras. They are also great for roasting, making chiles rellenos, or for use in salsas. Slightly hotter than a jalapeno, it adds quite a kick to dishes and salsa, but not overwhelming heat. It’s often grown by home gardeners.
500 - 700 Scovilles. Also known as the yellow hot chile and the guero chile. Approximately 5 inches long and ripen from greenish-yellow, to orange-yellow to red. The flavor ranges from mild to moderate, although some can be hot, but not compared to something more traditional like the jalapeno pepper. It is also known by name as yellow hot chili pepper and the guero chili pepper. The peppers start as a pale yellow color before maturing to a bright orange or to a fiery red about 75 days after transplanting. They are somewhat sweet to the taste and great for pickling. Santa Fe Grande is of the Capsicum annuum family, produced in the southwest. The peppers grow upright on 24" plants and have a mild pungency. The plants typically produce 20-50 chili peppers.
40,000-50,000 Scovilles. From Japan, the Santaka chili pepper is a hot and flavorful Asian variety, perfect for Asian cooking, especially stir-fries. They are also great in salsas and sauces, and can be strung together, dried, and ground into powder. They grow to about 2 inches long and the plant itself if very attractive, with white flowers and an ornamental appearance. The chilis are cone-shaped, bright red when mature, and the skin is thin and wrinkled.
100,000 - 350,000 Scovilles. This pepper is a cultivar of the habanero and is among the hottest peppers anywhere. Its name derives from its resemblance to the Scottish Tam o' Shanter hat, though it appears primarily in the Carribean and in Guyana and the Maldives. Other names for these chili peppers include Bahamian, Bahama Mama, Jamaican Hot or Martinique Pepper, as well as booney peppers, bonney peppers, Boabs Bonnet, Scotty Bons and goat peppers. The Scotch bonnet pepper is usually red or yellow at maturity. It typically features with jerk dishes including pork and chicken. Its apple-and-cherry-tomato flavor also pops up with other dishes in Grenadian, Trinidadian, Jamaican, Barbadian, Guyanese, Surinamese, Haitian and Caymanian cuisine.
The Senise Chili Pepper, or Peperone di Senise, is also known as Peperone Crusco when dried. It is cultivated from a region between the Agri and Sinni rivers near Senise, Italy. These peppers are a major component in the Basilicata region’s cuisine. The peppers are horn shaped and typically picked when red. The peppers are thin walled with very little flesh. A popular serving method in the region is to simply fry them whole and serve them with salt, much like the Pimento de Padron pepper in Spain. They are also prized for being easy to dry, then served crushed or ground into powder to season a large variety of dishes.
5,000 - 23,000 Scovilles. The serrano chili pepper is a smaller version of the jalapeno pepper, similar in color, but smaller, about 1 to 4 inches long on average and 1/2 inch wide. They generally grow between 1 - 4 inches long and about 1/2 inch wide though they have been known to grow longer. They are meaty peppers and are not the best choice for drying. The serrano pepper originated in the Mexican states of Puebla and Hidalgo. They are commonly red, brown, orange, or yellow, though you are likely to find them in their more common green color, much like a jalapeno pepper.
Shepherds Ramshorn (Capsicum annuum). The Shepherds Ramshorn is a large sweet variety that originated in Spain but now is mainly cultivated in Italy. On the Brix sweet scale, which determines sugar content in fruits and vegetables, it scores higher than the Corno di Toro and Marconi Red varieties. However, it does take longer to mature than those peppers. In the seed tissue it will have a detectable mild heat. This pepper is aproductive pepper plant, especially in cooler shorter summer seasons and it does well in the wet northeast. It is used to make sweet sauces, raw in salads, roasting and stuffing. The Shepherds Ramshorn chile plants can grow between 2 to 3 feet tall.
5,000-30,000 Scovilles. Also known as the “Bulgarian Carrot Pepper,” this interesting little chili pepper looks remarkably like a carrot, with its bright orange color and long, narrow body. It grows to about 3 ½” long and has an intensely hot but fruity flavor. An heirloom pepper originally from Bulgaria, “Shipkas” was its native name. The rumor is that the Carrot Pepper was smuggled out through the Iron Curtain around the late 1980s. The crunchy flesh of the Shipkas makes it excellent for roasting, and it tastes great in salsas, marinades and chutneys. Its color also adds a distinctive appearance to everything it touches.
300–600 Scovilles. The Sonora is an Anaheim variety with a very mild flavor. It grows to about 10” in length and up to 1 ½” wide, and although it matures to red, it is commonly used in its less mature, green form. They are perfect for chiles rellenos since the skin is thick and sturdy. The plant is known to be very disease resistant, making it relatively easy to grow. They are very common in the United States, especially the northwest. The Sonora has many delicious uses. It is great for drying, and perfect for salads, salsas or pickling.
Capsicum Annuum. The Sucette de Provence is an heirloom chili pepper from Provence, France. The fruit can grow up to six inches long and a half inch in diameter. The peppers ripen from green to orange and finally a brilliant red. Heat levels are variable, ranging from the very mild with practically no detectable heat to Serrano pepper level, which is quite hot. They have a fruity flavor and are used in French cooking in all color stages, including for sauces, in dried form, or roasted whole. The Sucette de Provence chili pepper plants grow between 2-3 feet tall.
Sugar Rush-(Capsicum bacattum). This is a rare Peach colored Capsicum bacattum variety from Peru that is very sweet. The heat level approaches habanero, but does not quite achieve it. It might be the only Peach colored Aji type we have ever seen. It is similar to the Aji Amarillo but much sweeter, which is why it's called Sugar Rush. The Sugar Rush Chili plants will grow over 5 feet tall and will need staking. Like many Aji's they have a long season but produce many peppers into the fall.
40,000-50,000 Scovilles. These small peppers grow upright in clusters and mature from light green to red, often with shades of orange in between. They do best in a hot, humid climate. They grow to 1 ½”-2” in length and ½”- 1” in width and have a cone shape. They are decorative and colorful, and are often used as a border in gardens with limited space. The Super Chili is great for flavoring Asian dishes, including Thai and Szechwan cuisine, among others. Like many other chili peppers, they can be harvested and used at any stage of maturity.
Scoville Heat Units: 1,000+ SHU. Capsicum Annuum. A very sweet chili pepper ideal for all types of cooking. Use them in place of bell peppers in the Cajun Holy Trinity (bell peppers, onion, celery), for smaller stuffed peppers, for sweeter sauces, soups, stews, and even steeping to flavor liquids. The flavor is distinctively fruity.
0 Scovilles. The typical green bell pepper, about the size of a large fist. Very mild. Bell peppers are found in an array of bright colors, as shown above. While they can vary in flavor, bell peppers are not hot or spicy, like most other peppers. Color and flavor are determined by the variety of the pepper plant and the stage of ripeness when picked. For example, a red bell pepper is simply a mature green bell pepper.
30,000 - 50,000 Scovilles. Yep, this is THAT pepper used to make that very famous hot sauce. It's one of the most well known peppers next to the jalapeno. The fruit is tapered and under 2 inches long. The color is usually creamy yellow to red, and turn yellow and orange before ripening to bright red. The tabasco pepper is a variety of chili pepper species Capsicum frutescens, like the Naga Jolokia. It's a very pungent pepepr grown mostly in the Gulf Coast states. The word, "tabasco", is the name of a state in Mexico.
85,000-115,000 Scovilles. Originally from India, the Tabiche pepper can now be found growing worldwide and often year-round, but it does best in hot, dry climates. It grows to about three inches in length and an inch in width, with the shape of a thin teardrop. It has wrinkled, thin skin, and can mature to a pale yellow or a bright, glossy red.
The Tangerine Dream chili pepper is a gorgeous rocket-shaped sweet pepper that matures to a vibrant orange when ripe and ready to pick. The heat level is very low with a focus on the sweetness. The plants are quite productive with the peppers growing upwards. The fruits grow to approximately 3 inches in length and the plants grow to about 18 inches. Harvest them 70 days after you've planted them. Full sun is best for growing. They are very tasty! Try them pickled or in salads, of course, but I've also tried them roasted and incorporated raw into a no-cook pasta sauce recipe. The sweetness truly comes through.
50,000 - 100,000 Scovilles. Despite the common belief, there is no single "Thai chili pepper" though most candidates for the title are small in size and high in heat or pungency. There are at least 79 separate varieties of chili that have appeared from three species in Thailand. While the names of chili peppers are often "hotly" debated and therefore in a volatile state of flux the world over, some would say that there is particular confusion when the subject comes around to Thai peppers.nliven pastes and sauces, especially those with local fish flavors, of course.
50,000 - 75,000 Scovilles. The Tien Tsin is named after the province in China where its harvest originally took place. This pepper has traditionally accompanied fare in its native Asia. It now grows widely beyond the Middle Kingdom and appears in cuisines around the world. The Tien Tsin pepper is very hot. It usually displays a bright red color and grows from 1 to 2 inches in length. You can still find these once-exotic peppers in much of general Hunan and Szechwan cooking, and especially in the popular dish Kung Pao chicken.
265,000-328,000 Scovilles. Developed in Charleston, South Carolina, the Tiger Paw NR is an extra-hot bright orange habanero variety. Although not necessarily bred for its heat, it does pack quite a punch compared to a regular habanero. The significance of this habanero hybrid is its resistance to root-knot nematode, a parasitic worm (hence the NR in the name- Nematode Resistant). Root knot nematode can destroy a crop, and resistance makes growing this variety much easier. Recent research by scientists and the USDA in South Carolina has created a stir in the field of chili peppers because they have been able to develop a few varieties of pepper with this resistance, making farming much more productive. Other chiles stemming from this region and this research include the Charleston Hot and the Carolina Cayenne.
2,009,231 Scovilles. Capsicum Chinense. In February 2012, the 2012 New Mexico Chile Conference, in association with Jim Duffy of Refining Fire Chiles, announced that the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion is the hottest chili pepper in the world. Clocking in at 2,009,231 Scoville Units, this chili pepper is beyond blistering. The Moruga Scorpion is indigenous to the Moruga region of Trinidad and Tobago. In the study, the overall mean heat was measured at more than 1.2 million Scoville Heat Units, the highest measuring at over 2 Million SHU. Belonging to the collection of "super hots", the Moruga Chili Pepper is used in a number of hot sauce products.
0-500 Scovilles. The Trinidad Perfume chili pepper is a mild chili pepper with very little to no heat. It is a habanero type and produces pods similar to a typical orange habanero pepper, about 1 to 1.5 inches in length and 1.25 inches wide. The mature from green to a bright yellow color. When cooked, they give off a perfume-like scent, hence the name. In flavor, they have a mild citrus-like taste, similar to a habanero, but with smoky undertones.
1,463,700 Scovilles. The Trinidad Scorpion Butch T has been rated at 1,463,700 Scoville Heat Units (SHU), according to recent tests. It was propagated by Butch Taylor of Zydeco Hot Sauce and grown by the Chilli Factory. One of the hottest chili peppers in the world.
300,000+ Scovilles. Capsicum chinense. A rare chili pepper hailing from the Caribbean. These red, wrinkled peppers resemble the scorpion, hence the name, and are known for their intense heat. When growing, they are approximately 80+ days to full maturity, and they are great for growing in pots or containers, and even for indoor growing. The peppers are produced with a pointy tip. They are very hot and mature from green to vibrant red. Plant has green stems, green leaves, and creamy-yellow flowers. Ideal for salsas, marinades, and making your own hot sauce.
80,000 – 120,000 Scoville Heat Units. We grew a variety of chili peppers in our garden this year, like every year, and were happy with a newcomer – the Tshololo chili pepper. There isn’t much information on this wonderful little pepper. It originates in Brazil and it is fairly rare. It is Capsicum Chinense. Having grown them this year, I can tell you that they are roughly 4-5 inches in length and curl up like a cayenne pepper, though the pepper flesh is a bit thicker than the cayenne.
75,000 Scovilles. Also known as Japanese chile. Originating in Japan, these chiles come from small plants (the name refers to a dwarf tree) and grow upward in clusters around yellow flowers. It is grown as a short-lived perennial, meaning it comes back each year, but only for 2-3 years. Mature peppers are often dried before use. The Yatsafusa peppers mature to a deep red at about 3 inches, but can be picked before maturity, when they are green, for a slightly different and milder flavor. It is said that the best flavor comes from mixing the young green peppers with the mature red ones in dishes. The chile is of course popular in many Japanese dishes such as soups and stir-fries, as well as other Asian cuisine. They are also used in hot sauces and as a rub for smoked meat.
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